Wednesday, February 25, 2009

The Battle of the Crabs


One day the land crabs had a meeting and one of them said:

"What shall we do with the waves? They sing so loudly all the time
that we cannot possibly sleep."

"Well," answered one of the oldest of the crabs, "I think we should
make war on them."

The others agreed to this, and it was decided that the next day all
the male crabs should get ready to fight the waves. They started for
the sea, as agreed, when they met a shrimp.

"Where are you going, my friends?" asked the shrimp.

"We are going to fight the waves," answered the crabs, "for they make
so much noise at night that we cannot sleep."

"I do not think you will succeed," said the shrimp, "for the waves
are very strong and your legs are so weak that even your bodies bend
almost to the ground when you walk." Wherewith he laughed loudly.

This made the crabs very angry, and they pinched the shrimp until he
promised to help them win the battle.

Then they all went to the shore. But the crabs noticed that the eyes
of the shrimp were set unlike their own, so they thought his must be
wrong and they laughed at him and said:

"Friend shrimp, your face is turned the wrong way. What weapon have
you to fight with the waves?"

"My weapon is a spear on my head," replied the shrimp, and just then
he saw a big wave coming and ran away. The crabs did not see it,
however, for they were all looking toward the shore, and they were
covered with water and drowned.

By and by the wives of the crabs became worried because their husbands
did not return, and they went down to the shore to see if they could
help in the battle. No sooner had they reached the water, however,
than the waves rushed over them and killed them.

Some time after this thousands of little crabs appeared near the shore,
and the shrimp often visited them and told them of the sad fate of
their parents. Even today these little crabs can be seen on the shore,
continually running back and forth. They seem to rush down to fight
the waves, and then, as their courage fails, they run back to the
land where their forefathers lived. They neither live on dry land,
as their ancestors did, nor in the sea where the other crabs are,
but on the beach where the waves wash over them at high tide and try
to dash them to pieces.

The Spider and the Fly


Mr. Spider wanted to marry Miss Fly. Many times he told her of his
love and begged her to become his wife, but she always refused for
she did not like him.

One day when she saw Mr. Spider coming again Miss Fly closed all
the doors and windows of her house and made ready a pot of boiling
water. Then she waited, and when Mr. Spider called, begging her
to allow him to enter, she answered by throwing boiling water at
him. This made Mr. Spider very angry and he cried:

"I will never forgive you for this, but I and my descendants will
always despise you. We will never give you any peace."

Mr. Spider kept his word, and even today one can see the hatred of
the spider for the fly.

The Hawk and the Hen


A hawk flying about in the sky one day decided that he would like to
marry a hen whom he often saw on earth. He flew down and searched
until he found her, and then asked her to become his wife. She at
once gave her consent on the condition that he would wait until she
could grow wings like his, so that she might also fly high. The hawk
agreed to this and flew away, after giving her a ring as an engagement
present and telling her to take good care of it.

The hen was very proud of the ring and placed it around her neck. The
next day, however, she met the cock who looked at her in astonishment
and said:

"Where did you get that ring? Do you not know that you promised to
be my wife? You must not wear the ring of anyone else. Throw it away."

And the hen threw away the beautiful ring.

Not long after this the hawk came down bringing beautiful feathers
to dress the hen. When she saw him coming she was frightened and ran
to hide behind the door, but the hawk called to her to come and see
the beautiful dress he had brought her.

The hen came out, and the hawk at once saw that the ring was gone.

"Where is the ring I gave you?" he asked. "Why do you not wear it?"

The hen was frightened and ashamed to tell the truth so she answered:

"Oh, sir, yesterday when I was walking in the garden, I met a large
snake and he frightened me so that I ran as fast as I could to the
house. Then I missed the ring and I searched everywhere but could
not find it."

The hawk looked sharply at the hen, and he knew that she was deceiving
him. Then he said to her:

"I did not believe that you could behave so badly. When you have
found the ring I will come down again and make you my wife. But as
a punishment for breaking your promise, you must always scratch the
ground to look for the ring. And every chicken of yours that I find,
I shall snatch away."

Then he flew away, and ever since all the hens throughout the world
have been scratching to find the hawk's ring.

Why Dogs Wag their Tails


A rich man in a certain town once owned a dog  and a cat, both of
which were very useful to him. The dog had served his master for many
years and had become so old that he had lost his teeth and was unable
to fight any more, but he was a good guide and companion to the cat
who was strong and cunning.

The master had a daughter who was attending school at a convent some
distance from home, and very often he sent the dog and the cat with
presents to the girl.

One day he called the faithful animals and bade them carry a magic
ring to his daughter.

"You are strong and brave," he said to the cat "You may carry the ring,
but you must be careful not to drop it"

And to the dog he said: "You must accompany the cat to guide her and
keep her from harm."

They promised to do their best, and started out. All went well until
they came to a river. As there was neither bridge nor boat, there
was no way to cross but to swim.

"Let me take the magic ring," said the dog as they were about to
plunge into the water.

"Oh, no," replied the cat, "the master gave it to me to carry."

"But you cannot swim well," argued the dog. "I am strong and can take
good care of it."

But the cat refused to give up the ring until finally the dog
threatened to kill her, and then she reluctantly gave it to him.

The river was wide and the water so swift that they grew very tired,
and just before they reached the opposite bank the dog dropped
the ring. They searched carefully, but could not find it anywhere,
and after a while they turned back to tell their master of the sad
loss. Just before reaching the house, however, the dog was so overcome
with fear that he turned and ran away and never was seen again.

The cat went on alone, and when the master saw her coming he called
out to know why she had returned so soon and what had become of her
companion. The poor cat was frightened, but as well as she could she
explained how the ring had been lost and how the dog had run away.

On hearing her story the master was very angry, and commanded that all
his people should search for the dog, and that it should be punished
by having its tail cut off.

He also ordered that all the dogs in the world should join in the
search, and ever since when one dog meets another he says: "Are you
the old dog that lost the magic ring? If so, your tail must be cut
off." Then immediately each shows his teeth and wags his tail to
prove that he is not the guilty one.

Since then, too, cats have been afraid of water and will not swim
across a river if they can avoid it.



One day a man said to his wife: "My wife, we are getting very poor
and I must go into business to earn some money."

"That is a good idea," replied his wife. "How much capital have you?"

"I have twenty-five centavos," [165] answered the man; "and I am
going to buy rice and carry it to the mines, for I have heard that
it brings a good price there."

So he took his twenty-five centavos and bought a half-cavan of rice
which he carried on his shoulder to the mine. Arriving there he told
the people that he had rice for sale, and they asked eagerly how much
he wanted for it.

"Why, have you forgotten the regular price of rice?" asked the man. "It
is twenty-five centavos."

They at once bought the rice, and the man was very glad because he
would not have to carry it any longer. He put the money in his belt
and asked if they would like to buy any more.

"Yes," said they, "we will buy as many cavans as you will bring."

When the man reached home his wife asked if he had been successful.

"Oh, my wife," he answered, "it is a very good business. I could not
take the rice off my shoulder before the people came to buy it."

"Well, that is good," said the wife; "we shall become very rich."

The next morning the man bought a half-cavan of rice the same as before
and carried it to the mine and when they asked how much it would be,
he said:

"It is the same as before--twenty-five centavos." He received the
money and went home.

"How is the business today?" asked his wife.

"Oh, it is the same as before," he said. "I could not take the rice
off my shoulder before they came for it."

And so he went on with his business for a year, each day buying
a half-cavan of rice and selling it for the price he had paid for
it. Then one day his wife said that they would balance accounts,
and she spread a mat on the floor and sat down on one side of it,
telling her husband to sit on the opposite side. When she asked him
for the money he had made during the year, he asked:

"What money?"

"Why, give me the money you have received," answered his wife;
"and then we can see how much you have made."

"Oh, here it is," said the man, and he took the twenty-five centavos
out of his belt and handed it to her.

"Is that all you have received this year?" cried his wife
angrily. "Haven't you said that rice brought a good price at the

"That is all," he replied.

"How much did you pay for the rice?"

"Twenty-five centavos."

"How much did you receive for it?"

"Twenty-five centavos."

"Oh, my husband," cried his wife, "how can you make any gain if you
sell it for just what you paid for it."

The man leaned his head against the wall and thought. Ever since then
he has been called "Mansumandig," a man who leans back and thinks.

Then the wife said, "Give me the twenty-five centavos, and I will try
to make some money." So he handed it to her, and she said, "Now you go
to the field where the people are gathering hemp and buy twenty-five
centavos worth for me, and I will weave it into cloth."

When Mansumandig returned with the hemp she spread it in the sun,
and as soon as it was dry she tied it into a long thread and put it
on the loom to weave. Night and day she worked on her cloth, and when
it was finished she had eight varas. This she sold for twelve and a
half centavos a vara, and with this money she bought more hemp. She
continued weaving and selling her cloth, and her work was so good
that people were glad to buy from her.

At the end of a year she again spread the mat on the floor and took
her place on one side of it, while her husband sat on the opposite
side. Then she poured the money out of the blanket in which she kept
it upon the mat. She held aside her capital, which was twenty-five
centavos, and when she counted the remainder she found that she
had three hundred pesos. Mansumandig was greatly ashamed when he
remembered that he had not made cent, and he leaned his head against
the wall and thought After a while the woman pitied him, so she gave
him the money and told him to buy carabao.

He was able to buy ten carabao and with these he plowed his fields. By
raising good crops they were able to live comfortably all the rest
of their lives.

The Virtue of the Cocoanut


One day a man took his blow-gun [163]and his dog and went to the
forest to hunt.  As he was making his way through the thick woods he
chanced upon a young cocoanut tree growing in the ground.

It was the first tree of this kind that he had ever seen, and it
seemed so peculiar to him that he stopped to look at it.

When he had gone some distance farther, his attention was attracted
by a noisy bird in a tree, and he shot it with his blow-gun. By and by
he took aim at a large monkey, which mocked him from another treetop,
and that, too, fell dead at his feet.

Then he heard his dog barking furiously in the distant bushes, and
hastening to it he found it biting a wild pig. After a hard struggle
he killed the pig, and then, feeling satisfied with his success,
he took the three animals on his back and returned to the little plant.

"I have decided to take you home with me, little plant," he said,
"for I like you and you may be of some use to me."

He dug up the plant very carefully and started home, but he had
not gone far when he noticed that the leaves had begun to wilt,
and he did not know what to do, since he had no water. Finally, in
despair, he cut the throat of the bird and sprinkled the blood on the
cocoanut. No sooner had he done this than the plant began to revive,
and he continued his journey.

Before he had gone far, however, the leaves again began to wilt, and
this time he revived it with the blood of the monkey. Then he hastened
on, but a third time the leaves wilted, and he was compelled to stop
and revive it with the blood of the pig. This was his last animal,
so he made all the haste possible to reach home before his plant
died. The cocoanut began to wilt again before he reached his house,
but when he planted it in the ground, it quickly revived, and grew
into a tall tree.

This hunter was the first man to take the liquor called tuba [164]
from the cocoanut tree, and he and his friends began to drink it. After
they had become very fond of it, the hunter said to his friends:

"The cocoanut tree is like the three animals whose blood gave it life
when it would have died. The man who drinks three or four cups of
tuba becomes like the noisy bird that I shot with my blow-gun. One
who drinks more than three or four cups becomes like the big monkey
that acts silly; and one who becomes drunk is like the pig that sleeps
even in a mud-hole."

The First Monkey


Many years ago at the foot of a forest-covered hill was a small town,
and just above the town on the hillside was a little house in which
lived an old woman and her grandson.

The old woman, who was very industrious, earned their living by
removing the seeds from cotton, and she always had near at hand
a basket in which were cotton and a long stick that she used for
a spindle. The boy was lazy and would not do anything to help his
grandmother, but every day went down to the town and gambled.

One day, when he had been losing money, the boy went home and was
cross because his supper was not ready.

"I am hurrying to get the seeds out of this cotton," said the
grandmother, "and as soon as I sell it, I will buy us some food."

At this the boy fell into a rage, and he picked up some cocoanut
shells and threw them at his grandmother. Then she became angry and
began to whip him with her spindle, when suddenly he was changed into
an ugly animal, and the cotton became hair which covered his body,
while the stick itself became his tail.

As soon as the boy found that he had become an ugly creature he ran
down into the town and began whipping his companions, the gamblers,
with his tail, and immediately they were turned into animals like

Then the people would no longer have them in the town, but drove
them out. They went to the forest where they lived in the trees,
and ever since they have been known as monkeys.

The Sun and the Moon


Once upon a time the Sun and the Moon were married, and they had many
children who were the stars. The Sun was very fond of his children,
but whenever he tried to embrace any of them, he was so hot that he
burned them up. This made the Moon so angry that finally she forbade
him to touch them again, and he was greatly grieved.

One day the Moon went down to the spring to do some washing, and
when she left she told the Sun that he must not touch any of their
children in her absence. When she returned, however, she found that
he had disobeyed her, and several of the children had perished.

She was very angry, and picked up a banana tree to strike him,
whereupon he threw sand in her face, and to this day you can see the
dark marks on the face of the Moon.

Then the Sun started to chase her, and they have been going ever
since. Sometimes he gets so near that he almost catches her, but she
escapes, and by and by she is far ahead again. 

Juan Gathers Guavas


One day Juan's father sent him to get some ripe guavas, for a number of
the neighbors had come in and he wanted to give them something to eat.

Juan went to the guava bushes and ate all the fruit he could hold,
and then he decided to play a joke on his father's guests instead
of giving them a feast of guavas. A wasp's nest hung near by. With
some difficulty he succeeded in taking it down and putting it into
a tight basket that he had brought for the fruit. He hastened home
and gave the basket to his father, and then as he left the room where
the guests were seated he closed the door and fastened it.

As soon as Juan's father opened the basket the wasps flew over the
room; and when the people found the door locked they fought to get
out of the windows. After a while Juan opened the door, and when he
saw the swollen faces of the people, he cried.

"What fine, rich guavas you must have had! They have made you all
so fat!".

The Adventures of Juan


Juan was always getting into trouble. He was a lazy boy, and more
than that, he did not have good sense. When he tried to do things,
he made such dreadful mistakes that he might better not have tried.

His family grew very impatient with him, scolding and beating him
whenever he did anything wrong. One day his mother, who was almost
discouraged with him, gave him a bolo [157] and sent him to the forest,
for she thought he could at least cut firewood. Juan walked leisurely
along, contemplating some means of escape. At last he came to a tree
that seemed easy to cut, and then he drew his long knife and prepared
to work.

Now it happened that this was a magic tree and it said to Juan:

"If you do not cut me I will give you a goat that shakes silver from
its whiskers."

This pleased Juan wonderfully, both because he was curious to see
the goat, and because he would not have to chop the wood. He agreed
at once to spare the tree, whereupon the bark separated and a goat
stepped out. Juan commanded it to shake its whiskers, and when the
money began to drop he was so delighted that he took the animal and
started home to show his treasure to his mother.

On the way he met a friend who was more cunning than Juan, and when
he heard of the boy's rich goat he decided to rob him. Knowing Juan's
fondness for tuba [158], he persuaded him to drink, and while he was
drunk, the friend substituted another goat for the magic one. As soon
as he was sober again, Juan hastened home with the goat and told his
people of the wonderful tree, but when he commanded the animal to
shake its whiskers, no money fell out. The family, believing it to
be another of Juan's tricks, beat and scolded the poor boy.

He went back to the tree and threatened to cut it down for lying to
him, but the tree said:

"No, do not cut me down and I will give you a net which you may cast on
dry ground, or even in the tree tops, and it will return full of fish."

So Juan spared the tree and started home with his precious net, but
on the way he met the same friend who again persuaded him to drink
tuba. While he was drunk, the friend replaced the magic net with
a common one, so that when Juan reached home and tried to show his
power, he was again the subject of ridicule.

Once more Juan went to his tree, this time determined to cut it
down. But the offer of a magic pot, always full of rice and spoons
which provided whatever he wished to eat with his rice, dissuaded him,
and he started home happier than ever. Before reaching home, however,
he met with the same fate as before, and his folks, who were becoming
tired of his pranks, beat him harder than ever.

Thoroughly angered, Juan sought the tree a fourth time and was
on the point of cutting it down when once more it arrested his
attention. After some discussion, he consented to accept a stick to
which he had only to say, "Boombye, Boomba," and it would beat and
kill anything he wished.

When he met his friend on this trip, he was asked what he had and
he replied:

"Oh, it is only a stick, but if I say 'Boombye, Boomba' it will beat
you to death."

At the sound of the magic words the stick leaped from his hands and
began beating his friend until he cried:

"Oh, stop it and I will give back everything that I stole from
you." Juan ordered the stick to stop, and then he compelled the man to
lead the goat and to carry the net and the jar and spoons to his home.

There Juan commanded the goat, and it shook its whiskers until his
mother and brothers had all the silver they could carry. Then they
ate from the magic jar and spoons until they were filled. And this
time Juan was not scolded. After they had finished Juan said:

"You have beaten me and scolded me all my life, and now you are glad
to accept my good things. I am going to show you something else:
'Boombye, Boomba'." Immediately the stick leaped out and beat them
all until they begged for mercy and promised that Juan should ever
after be head of the house.

From that time Juan was rich and powerful, but he never went anywhere
without his stick. One night, when some thieves came to his house,
he would have been robbed and killed had it not been for the magic
words "Boombye, Boomba," which caused the death of all the robbers.

Some time after this he married a beautiful princess, and because of
the kindness of the magic tree they always lived happily. 

The Story of Benito


Benito was an only son who lived with his father and mother in a
little village. They were very poor, and as the boy grew older and
saw how hard his parents struggled for their scanty living he often
dreamed of a time when he might be a help to them.

One evening when they sat eating their frugal meal of rice the father
told about a young king who lived in a beautiful palace some distance
from their village, and the boy became very much interested. That
night when the house was dark and quiet and Benito lay on his mat
trying to sleep, thoughts of the young king repeatedly came to his
mind, and he wished he were a king that he and his parents might
spend the rest of their lives in a beautiful palace.

The next morning he awoke with a new idea. He would go to the king and
ask for work, that he might in that way be able to help his father
and mother. He was a long time in persuading his parents to allow
him to go, however, for it was a long journey, and they feared that
the king might not be gracious. But at last they gave their consent,
and the boy started out The journey proved tiresome. After he reached
the palace, he was not at first permitted to see the king. But the
boy being very earnest at last secured a place as a servant.

It was a new and strange world to Benito who had known only the life
of a little village. The work was hard, but he was happy in thinking
that now he could help his father and mother. One day the king sent
for him and said:

"I want you to bring to me a beautiful princess who lives in a land
across the sea. Go at once, and if you fail you shall be punished

The boy's heart sank within him, for he did not know what to do. But
he answered as bravely as possible, "I will, my lord," and left the
king's chamber. He at once set about preparing things for a long
journey, for he was determined to try at least to fulfil the command.

When all was ready Benito started. He had not gone far before he
came to a thick forest, where he saw a large bird bound tightly
with strings.

"Oh, my friend," pleaded the bird, "please free me from these bonds,
and I will help you whenever you call on me."

Benito quickly released the bird, and it flew away calling back to
him that its name was Sparrow-hawk.

Benito continued his journey till he came to the sea. Unable to find
a way of crossing, he stopped and gazed sadly out over the waters,
thinking of the king's threat if he failed. Suddenly he saw swimming
toward him the King of the Fishes who asked:

"Why are you so sad?"

"I wish to cross the sea to find the beautiful Princess," answered
the boy.

"Well, get on my back," said the Fish, "and I will carry you across."

So Benito stepped on his back and was carried to the other shore.

Soon he met a strange woman who inquired what it was he sought,
and when he had told her she said:

"The Princess is kept in a castle guarded by giants. Take this magic
sword, for it will kill instantly whatever it touches." And she handed
him the weapon.

Benito was more than grateful for her kindness and went on full of
hope. As he approached the castle he could see that it was surrounded
by many giants, and as soon as they saw him they ran out to seize him,
but they went unarmed for they saw that he was a mere boy. As they
approached he touched those in front with his sword, and one by one
they fell dead. Then the others ran away in a panic, and left the
castle unguarded. Benito entered, and when he had told the Princess
of his errand, she was only too glad to escape from her captivity
and she set out at once with him for the palace of the king.

At the seashore the King of the Fishes was waiting for them, and they
had no difficulty in crossing the sea and then in journeying through
the thick forest to the palace, where they were received with great
rejoicing. After a time the King asked the Princess to become his wife,
and she replied:

"I will, O King, if you will get the ring I lost in the sea as I was
crossing it"

The King immediately thought of Benito, and sending for him he
commanded him to find the ring which had been lost on the journey
from the land of the giants.

It seemed a hopeless task to the boy, but, anxious to obey his master,
he started out. At the seaside he stopped and gazed over the waters
until, to his great delight, he saw his friend, the King of the Fishes,
swimming toward him. When he had been told of the boy's troubles,
the great fish said: "I will see if I can help you," and he summoned
all his subjects to him. When they came he found that one was missing,
and he sent the others in search of it. They found it under a stone
so full that it could not swim, and the larger ones took it by the
tail and dragged it to the King.

"Why did you not come when you were called?" inquired the King Fish.

"I have eaten so much that I cannot swim," replied the poor fish.

Then the King Fish, suspecting the truth, ordered it cut open,
and inside they found the lost ring. Benito was overjoyed at this,
and expressing his great thanks, hastened with the precious ring to
his master.

The King, greatly pleased, carried the ring to the Princess and said:

"Now that I have your ring will you become my wife?"

"I will be your wife," replied the Princess, "if you will find my
earring that I lost in the forest as I was journeying with Benito."

Again the King sent for Benito, and this time he commanded him to
find the earring. The boy was very weary from his long journeys, but
with no complaint he started out once more. Along the road through
the thick forest he searched carefully, but with no reward. At last,
tired and discouraged, he sat down under a tree to rest.

Suddenly there appeared before him a mouse of great size, and he was
surprised to find that it was the King of Mice.

"Why are you so sad?" asked the King Mouse.

"Because," answered the boy, "I cannot find an earring which the
Princess lost as we were going through the forest together."

"I will help you," said the Mouse, and he summoned all his subjects.

When they assembled it was found that one little mouse was missing,
and the King sent the others to look for him. In a small hole among
the bamboo trees they found him, and he begged to be left alone,
for, he said, he was so full that he could not walk. Nevertheless
they pulled him along to their master, who, upon finding that there
was something hard inside the mouse, ordered him cut open; and inside
they found the missing earring.

Benito at once forgot his weariness, and after expressing his great
thanks to the King Mouse he hastened to the palace with the prize. The
King eagerly seized the earring and presented it to the Princess,
again asking her to be his wife.

"Oh, my King," replied the Princess, "I have one more request to
make. Only grant it and I will be your wife forever."

The King, believing that now with the aid of Benito he could grant
anything, inquired what it was she wished, and she replied:

"Get me some water from heaven and some from the lower world, and I
shall ask nothing more."

Once more the King called Benito and sent him on the hardest errand
of all.

The boy went out not knowing which way to turn, and while he was
in a deep study his weary feet led him to the forest. Suddenly he
thought of the bird who had promised to help him, and he called,
"Sparrowhawk!" There was a rustle of wings, and the bird swooped
down. He told it of his troubles and it said:

"I will get the water for you."

Then Benito made two light cups of bamboo which he fastened to the
bird's legs, and it flew away. All day the boy waited in the forest,
and just as night was coming on the bird returned with both cups
full. The one on his right foot, he told Benito, was from heaven,
and that on his left was from the lower world. The boy unfastened
the cups, and then, as he was thanking the bird, he noticed that the
journey had been too much for it and that it was dying. Filled with
sorrow for his winged friend, he waited and carefully buried it,
and then he hastened to the palace with the precious water.

When the Princess saw that her wish had been fulfilled she asked the
King to cut her in two and pour over her the water from heaven. The
King was not able to do this, so she cut herself, and then as he
poured the water over her he beheld her grow into the most beautiful
woman he had ever seen.

Eager to become handsome himself, the King then begged her to pour
over him the water from the other cup. He cut himself, and she did
as he requested, but immediately there arose a creature most ugly
and horrible to look upon, which soon vanished out of sight. Then
the Princess called Benito and told him that because he had been
so faithful to his master and so kind to her, she chose him for
her husband.

They were married amid great festivities and became king and queen of
that broad and fertile land. During all the great rejoicing, however,
Benito never forgot his parents. One of the finest portions of his
kingdom he gave to them, and from that time they all lived in great

The Creation Story


The Creation Story

When the world first began there was no land, but only the sea and the sky, and between them was a kite[1]. One day the bird which had nowhere to light grew tired of flying about, so she stirred up the sea until it threw its waters against the sky. The sky, in order to restrain the sea, showered upon it many islands until it could no longer rise, but ran back and forth. Then the sky ordered the kite to light on one of the islands to build her nest, and to leave the sea and the sky in peace.

Now at this time the land breeze and the sea breeze were married, and they had a child which was a bamboo. One day when this bamboo was floating about on the water, it struck the feet of the kite which was on the beach. The bird, angry that anything should strike it, pecked at the bamboo, and out of one section came a man and from the other a woman.

Then the earthquake called on all the birds and fish to see what should be done with these two, and it was decided that they should marry. Many children were born to the couple, and from them came all the different races of people.

After a while the parents grew very tired of having so many idle and useless children around, and they wished to be rid of them, but they knew of no place to send them to. Time went on and the children became so numerous that the parents enjoyed no peace. One day, in desperation, the father seized a stick and began beating them on all sides.

This so frightened the children that they fled in different directions, seeking hidden rooms in the house - some concealed themselves in the walls, some ran outside, while others hid in the fireplace, and several fled to the sea.

Now it happened that those who went into the hidden rooms of the house later became the chiefs of the Islands; and those who concealed themselves in the walls became slaves. Those who ran outside were free men; and those who hid in the fireplace became negroes; while those who fled to the sea were gone many years, and when their children came back they were the white people.

[1] A bird something like a hawk.

The White Squash


In a queer little bamboo house in front of a big garden lived a man
and his wife all alone. They had always been kind and good to everyone,
but still they were not happy, because the child for which they longed
had never come to them. Each day for many years they had prayed for
a son or a daughter, but their prayers had been unanswered. Now that
they were growing old they believed that they must always live alone.

In the garden near their house this couple grew fine white squash,
and as the vines bore the year around, they had never been in need
of food. One day, however, they discovered that no new squash had
formed to take the place of those they had picked, and for the first
time in many seasons they had no vegetables.

Each day they examined the vines, and though the big, yellow flowers
continued to bloom and fade, no squash grew on the stems. Finally,
one morning after a long wait, the woman cried out with delight, for
she had discovered a little green squash. After examining it, they
decided to let it ripen that they might have the seeds to plant. They
eagerly watched it grow, and it became a beautiful white vegetable,
but by the time it was large enough for food they were so hungry that
they decided to eat it.

They brought a large knife and picked it, but scarcely had they
started to open it when a voice cried out from within, "Please be
careful that you do not hurt me."

The man and woman stopped their work, for they thought that a spirit
must have spoken to them. But when the voice again called and begged
them to open the squash, they carefully opened it, and there inside
was a nice baby boy. [153] He could already stand alone and could
talk. And the man and his wife were overjoyed.

Presently the woman went to the spring for a jar of water, and
when she had brought it she spread a mat on the floor and began to
bathe the baby. As the drops of water fell off his body, they were
immediately changed to gold, so that when the bath was finished gold
pieces covered the mat. The couple had been so delighted to have the
baby that it had seemed as if there was nothing more to wish for, but
now that the gold had come to them also they were happier than ever.

The next morning the woman gave the baby another bath, and again
the water turned to gold. They now had enough money to build a large
house. The third morning she brought water for his bath again, but he
grew very sad and flew away. At the same time all the gold disappeared
also, and the man and his wife were left poor and alone.

The Story of a Monkey


One day when a monkey was climbing a tree in the forest in which he
lived, he ran a thorn into his tail. Try as he would, he could not
get it out, so he went to a barber in the town and said:

"Friend Barber, I have a thorn in the end of my tail. Pull it out,
and I will pay you well."

The barber tried to pull out the thorn with his razor, but in doing
so he cut off the end of the tail. The monkey was very angry and cried:

"Barber, Barber, give me back my tail, or give me your razor!"

The barber could not put back the end of the monkey's tail, so he
gave him his razor.

On the way home the monkey met an old woman who was cutting wood for
fuel, and he said to her:

"Grandmother, Grandmother, that is very hard. Use this razor and then
it will cut easily."

The old woman was very pleased with the offer and began to cut with the
razor, but before she had used it long it broke. Then the monkey cried:

"Grandmother, Grandmother, you have broken my razor! You must get a
new one for me or else give me all the firewood."

The old woman could not get a new razor so she gave him the firewood.

The monkey took the wood and was going back to town to sell it,
when he saw a woman sitting beside the road making cakes.

"Grandmother, Grandmother," said he, "your wood is most gone; take
this of mine and bake more cakes."

The woman took the wood and thanked him for his kindness, but when
the last stick was burned, the monkey cried out:

"Grandmother, Grandmother, you have burned up all my wood! Now you
must give me all your cakes to pay for it."

The old woman could not cut more dry wood at once, so she gave him
all the cakes.

The monkey took the cakes and started for the town, but on the way he
met a dog which bit him so that he died. And the dog ate all the cakes.

The Presidente who had Horns


Once there was a presidente [151] who was very unjust  to his people,
and one day he became so angry that he wished he had horns so that
he might frighten them. No sooner had he made this rash wish, than
horns began to grow on his head.

He sent for a barber who came to his house to cut his hair, and as
he worked the presidente asked:

"What do you see on my head?"

"I see nothing," answered the barber; for although he could see the
horns plainly, he was afraid to say so.

Soon, however, the presidente put up his hands and felt the horns, and
then when he inquired again the barber told him that he had two horns.

"If you tell anyone what you have seen, you shall be hanged," said the
presidente as the barber started away, and he was greatly frightened.

When he reached home, the barber did not intend to tell anyone, for
he was afraid; but as he thought of his secret more and more, the
desire to tell someone became so strong that he knew he could not keep
it. Finally he went to the field and dug a hole under some bamboo,
and when the hole was large enough he crawled in and whispered that
the presidente had horns. He then climbed out, filled up the hole,
and went home.

By and by some people came along the road on their way to market,
and as they passed the bamboo they stopped in amazement, for surely
a voice came from the trees, and it said that the presidente had
horns. These people hastened to market and told what they had heard,
and the people there went to the bamboo to listen to the strange
voice. They informed others, and soon the news had spread all over the
town. The councilmen were told, and they, too, went to the bamboo. When
they had heard the voice, they ran to the house of the presidente. But
his wife said that he was ill and they could not see him.

By this time the horns had grown until they were one foot in length,
and the presidente was so ashamed that he bade his wife tell the
people that he could not talk. She told this to the councilmen when
they came on the following day, but they replied that they must see
him, for they had heard that he had horns, and if this were true he
had no right to govern the people.

She refused to let them in, so they broke down the door. They saw the
horns on the head of the presidente and killed him. For, they said,
he was no better than an animal. 

The Poor Fisherman and His Wife


Many, many years ago a poor fisherman and his wife lived with their
three sons in a village by the sea. One day the old man set his snare
in the water not far from his house, and at night when he went to look
at it, he found that he had caught a great white fish. This startled
the old man very much, for he had never seen a fish like this before,
and it occurred to him that it was the priest of the town.

He ran to his wife as fast as he could and cried:

"My wife, I have caught the priest."

"What?" said the old woman, terrified at the sight of her frightened

"I have caught the priest," said the old man again.

They hurried together to the river where the snare was set, and when
the old woman saw the fish, she cried:

"Oh, it is not the priest but the governor."

"No, it is the priest," insisted the old man, and they went home
trembling with fear.

That night neither of them was able to sleep for thought of the
terrible thing that had happened and wondering what they should do. Now
the next day was a great holiday in the town. At four o'clock in the
morning cannons were fired and bells rang loudly. The old man and
woman, hearing all the noise and  not knowing the reason for it,
thought that their crime had been discovered, and the people were
searching for them to punish them, so they set out as fast as they
could to hide in the woods. On and on they went, stopping only to
rest so as to enable them to resume their flight.

The next morning they reached the woods near Pilar, where there also
was a great holiday, and the sexton was ringing the bells to call
the people to mass. As soon as the old man and woman heard the bells
they thought the people there had been notified of their escape,
and that they, too, were trying to catch them. So they turned and
started home again.

As they reached their house, the three sons came home with their one
horse and tied it to the trunk of the caramay tree. Presently the
bells began to ring again, for it was twelve o'clock at noon. Not
thinking what time of day it was, the old man and woman ran out
of doors in terror, and seeing the horse jumped on its back with
the intention of riding to the next town before anyone could catch
them. When they had mounted they began to whip the horse. In their
haste, they had forgotten to untie the rope which was around the
trunk of the caramay tree. As the horse pulled at the rope fruit fell
from the tree upon the old man and woman. Believing they were shot,
they were so frightened that they died.

The Monkey and the Turtle


A monkey, looking very sad and dejected, was walking along the bank
of the river one day when he met a turtle.

"How are you?" asked the turtle, noticing that he looked sad.

The monkey replied, "Oh, my friend, I am very hungry. The squash of
Mr. Farmer were all taken by the other monkeys, and now I am about
to die from want of food."

"Do not be discouraged," said the turtle; "take a bolo and follow me
and we will steal some banana plants."

So they walked along together until they found some nice plants which
they dug up, and then they looked for a place to set them. Finally
the monkey climbed a tree and planted his in it, but as the turtle
could not climb he dug a hole in the ground and set his there.

When their work was finished they went away, planning what they should
do with their crop. The monkey said:

"When my tree bears fruit, I shall sell it and have a great deal
of money."

And the turtle said: "When my tree bears fruit, I shall sell it and
buy three varas of cloth to wear in place of this cracked shell."

A few weeks later they went back to the place to see their plants and
found that that of the monkey was dead, for its roots had had no soil
in the tree, but that of the turtle was tall and bearing fruit.

"I will climb to the top so that we can get the fruit," said the
monkey. And he sprang up the tree, leaving the poor turtle on the
ground alone.

"Please give me some to eat," called the turtle, but the monkey threw
him only a green one and ate all the ripe ones himself.

When he had eaten all the good bananas, the monkey stretched his arms
around the tree and went to sleep. The turtle, seeing this, was very
angry and considered how he might punish the thief. Having decided
on a scheme, he gathered some sharp bamboo which he stuck all around
under the tree, and then he exclaimed:

"Crocodile is coming! Crocodile is coming!"

The monkey was so startled at the cry that he fell upon the sharp
bamboo and was killed.

Then the turtle cut the dead monkey into pieces, put salt on it, and
dried it in the sun. The next day, he went to the mountains and sold
his meat to other monkeys who gladly gave him squash in return. As
he was leaving them he called back:

"Lazy fellows, you are now eating your own body; you are now eating
your own body."

Then the monkeys ran and caught him and carried him to their own home.

"Let us take a hatchet," said one old monkey, "and cut him into very
small pieces."

But the turtle laughed and said: "That is just what I like, I have
been struck with a hatchet many times. Do you not see the black scars
on my shell?"

Then one of the other monkeys said: "Let us throw him into the water,"

At this the turtle cried and begged them to spare his life, but they
paid no heed to his pleadings and threw him into the water. He sank
to the bottom, but very soon came up with a lobster. The monkeys
were greatly surprised at this and begged him to tell them how to
catch lobsters.

"I tied one end of a string around my waist," said the turtle. "To
the other end of the string I tied a stone so that I would sink."

The monkeys immediately tied strings around themselves as the turtle
said, and when all was ready they plunged into the water never to
come up again.

And to this day monkeys do not like to eat meat, because they remember
the ancient story.

The Story of Bantugan


Before the Spaniards occupied the island of Mindanao,  there lived
in the valley of the Rio Grande a very strong man, Bantugan, whose
father was the brother of the earthquake and thunder. [146]

Now the Sultan of the Island [147] had a beautiful daughter whom
Bantugan wished to marry, but the home of the Sultan was far off,
and whoever went to carry Bantugan's proposal would have a long and
hazardous journey. All the head men consulted together regarding who
should be sent, and at last it was decided that Bantugan's own son,
Balatama, was the one to go. Balatama was young but he was strong and
brave, and when the arms of his father were given him to wear on the
long journey his heart swelled with pride. More than once on the way,
however, his courage was tried, and only the thought of his brave
father gave him strength to proceed.

Once he came to a wooden fence which surrounded a stone in the form of
a man, and as it was directly in his path he drew his fighting knife
to cut down the fence. Immediately the air became as black as night
and stones rained down as large as houses. This made Balatama cry, but
he protected himself with his father's shield and prayed, calling on
the winds from the homeland until they came and cleared the air again.

Thereupon Balatama encountered a great snake [148] in the road,
and it inquired his errand. When told, the snake said:

"You cannot go on, for I am guard of this road and no one can pass."

The animal made a move to seize him, but with one stroke of his
fighting knife the boy cut the snake into two pieces, one of which
he threw into the sea and the other into the mountains.

After many days the weary lad came to a high rock in the road,
which glistened in the sunlight. From the top he could look down
into the city for which he was bound. It was a splendid place with
ten harbors. Standing out from the other houses was one of crystal
and another of pure gold. Encouraged by this sight he went on, but
though it seemed but a short distance, it was some time before he at
last stood at the gate of the town.

It was not long after this, however, before Balatama had made known his
errand to the Sultan, and that monarch, turning to his courtiers, said:

"You, my friends, decide whether or not I shall give the hand of my
daughter to Bantugan in marriage."

The courtiers slowly shook their heads and began to offer objections.

Said one, "I do not see how Bantugan can marry the Sultan's daughter
because the first gift must be a figure of a man or woman in pure

"Well," said the son of Bantugan, "I am here to learn what you want
and to say whether or not it can be given."

Then a second man spoke: "You must give a great yard with a floor of
gold, which must be three feet thick."

"All this can be given," answered the boy.

And the sister of the Princess said: "The gifts must be as many as
the blades of grass in our city."

"It shall be granted," said Balatama.

"You must give a bridge built of stone to cross the great river,"
said one.

And another: "A ship of stone you must give, and you must change into
gold all the cocoanuts and leaves in the Sultan's grove."

"All this can be done," said Balatama. "My uncles will give all save
the statue of gold, and that I shall give myself. But first I must
go to my father's town to secure it."

At this they were angry and declared that he had made sport of them
and unless he produced the statue at once they would kill him.

"If I give you the statue now," said he, "there will come dreadful
storms, rain, and darkness."

But they only laughed at him and insisted on having the statue,
so he reached in his helmet and drew it forth.

Immediately the earth began to quake. A great storm arose, and stones
as large as houses rained until the Sultan called to Balatama to put
back the statue lest they all be killed.

"You would not believe what I told you," said the boy; "and now I am
going to let the storm continue."

But the Sultan begged him and promised that Bantugan might marry his
daughter with no other gifts at all save the statue of gold. Balatama
put back the statue into his helmet, and the air became calm again
to the great relief of the Sultan and his courtiers. Then Balatama
prepared to return home, promising that Bantugan would come in three
months for the wedding.

All went well with the boy on the way home until he came to the fence
surrounding the stone in the form of a man, and there he was detained
and compelled to remain four months.

Now about this time a Spanish general heard that Bantugan was preparing
to marry the Sultan's daughter, whom he determined to wed himself. A
great expedition was prepared, and he with all his brothers embarked on
his large warship which was followed by ten thousand other ships. They
went to the Sultan's city, and their number was so great that they
filled the harbor, frightening the people greatly.

Then the General's brother disembarked and came to the house of the
Sultan. He demanded the Princess for the General, saying that if the
request were refused, the fleet would destroy the city and all its
people. The Sultan and his courtiers were so frightened that they
decided to give his daughter to the General, the next full moon being
the date set for the wedding.

In the meantime Bantugan had been preparing everything for the
marriage which he expected to take place at the appointed time. But
as the days went by and Balatama did not return, they became alarmed,
fearing he was dead. After three months had passed, Bantugan prepared
a great expedition to go in search of his son, and the great warship
was decorated with flags of gold.

As they came in sight of the Sultan's city, they saw the Spanish
fleet in the harbor, and one of his brothers advised Bantugan not
to enter until the Spaniards left They then brought their ship to
anchor. But all were disappointed that they could not go farther, and
one said, "Why do we not go on? Even if the blades of grass turn into
Spaniards we need not fear." Another said: "Why do we fear? Even if
the cannon-balls come like rain, we can always fight." Finally some
wanted to return to their homes and Bantugan said: "No, let us seek
my son. Even though we must enter the harbor where the Spaniards are,
let us continue our search." So at his command the anchors were lifted,
and they sailed into the harbor where the Spanish fleet lay.

Now at this very time the Spanish general and his brother were with
the Sultan, intending to call upon the Princess. As the brother talked
with one of the sisters of the Princess they moved toward the window,
and looking down they saw Bantugan's ships entering the harbor. They
could not tell whose flags the ships bore. Neither could the Sultan
when he was called. Then he sent his brother to bring his father who
was a very old man, to see if he could tell. The father was kept in
a little dark room by himself that he might not get hurt, and the
Sultan said to his brother:

"If he is so bent with age that he cannot see, talk, or walk, tickle
him in the ribs and that will make him young again; and, my Brother,
carry him here yourself lest one of the slaves should let him fall
and he should hurt himself."

So the old man was brought, and when he looked out upon the ships
he saw that the flags were those of the father of Bantugan who had
been a great friend of his in his youth. And he told them that he and
Bantugan's father years ago had made a contract that their children
and children's children should intermarry, and now since the Sultan
had promised his daughter to two people, he foresaw that great trouble
would come to the land. Then the Sultan said to the General:

"Here are two claimants to my daughter's hand. Go aboard your ships
and you and Bantugan make war on each other, and the victor shall
have my daughter."

So the Spaniards opened fire upon Bantugan, and for three days the
earth was so covered with smoke from the battle that neither could
see his enemy. Then the Spanish general said:

"I cannot see Bantugan or the fleet anywhere, so let us go and claim
the Princess."

But the Sultan said: "We must wait until the smoke rises to make sure
that Bantugan is gone."

When the smoke rose, the ships of Bantugan were apparently unharmed
and the Sultan said:

"Bantugan has surely won, for his fleet is uninjured while yours is
badly damaged. You have lost."

"No," said the General, "we will fight it out on dry land."

So they both landed their troops and their cannon, and a great fight
took place, and soon the ground was covered with dead bodies. And the
Sultan commanded them to stop, as the women and children in the city
were being killed by the cannon-balls, but the General said:

"If you give your daughter to Bantugan we shall fight forever or
until we die."

Then the Sultan sent for Bantugan and said:

"We must deceive the Spaniard in order to get him to go away. Let us
tell him that neither of you will marry my daughter, and then after
he has gone, we shall have the wedding."

Bantugan agreed to this, and word was sent to the Spaniards that the
fighting must cease since many women and children were being killed. So
it was agreed between the Spaniard and Bantugan that neither of them
should marry the Princess. Then they both sailed away to their homes.

Bantugan soon returned, however, and married the Princess, and
on the way back to his home they found his son and took him with
them. For about a week the Spanish general sailed toward his home
and then he, too, turned about to go back, planning to take the
Princess by force. When he found that she had already been carried
away by Bantugan, his wrath knew no bounds. He destroyed the Sultan,
his city, and all its people. And then he sailed away to prepare a
great expedition with which he should utterly destroy Bantugan and
his country as well.

One morning Bantugan looked out and saw at the mouth of the Rio Grande
the enormous fleet of the Spaniards whose numbers were so great that
in no direction could the horizon be seen. His heart sank within him,
for he knew that he and his country were doomed.

Though he could not hope to win in a fight against such great numbers,
he called his headmen together and said:

"My Brothers, the Christian dogs have come to destroy the land. We
cannot successfully oppose them, but in the defense of the fatherland
we can die."

So the great warship was again prepared, and all the soldiers of
Islam embarked, and then with Bantugan standing at the bow they sailed
forth to meet their fate.

The fighting was fast and furious, but soon the great warship of
Bantugan filled with water until at last it sank, drawing with it
hundreds of the Spanish ships. And then a strange thing happened. At
the very spot where Bantugan's warship sank, there arose from the sea a
great island which you can see today not far from the mouth of the Rio
Grande. It is covered with bongo palms, and deep within its mountains
live Bantugan and his warriors. A Moro sailboat passing this island
is always scanned by Bantugan's watchers, and if it contains women
such as he admires, they are snatched from their seats and carried
deep into the heart of the mountain. For this reason Moro women fear
even to sail near the island of Bongos.

When the wife of Bantugan saw that her husband was no more and that
his warship had been destroyed, she gathered together the remaining
warriors and set forth herself to avenge him. In a few hours her
ship was also sunk, and in the place where it sank there arose the
mountain of Timaco.

On this thickly wooded island are found white monkeys, the servants
of the Princess, who still lives in the center of the mountain. On
a quiet day high up on the mountain side one can hear the chanting
and singing of the waiting-girls of the wife of Bantugan.

Mythology of Mindanao


A long, long time ago Mindanao was covered with water, and the sea
extended over all the lowlands so that nothing could be seen but
mountains. Then there were many people living in the country, and all
the highlands were dotted with villages and settlements. For many years
the people prospered, living in peace and contentment. Suddenly there
appeared in the land four horrible monsters which, in a short time,
had devoured every human being they could find.

Kurita, a terrible creature with many limbs, lived partly on land and
partly in the sea, but its favorite haunt was the mountain where the
rattan grew; and here it brought utter destruction on every living
thing. The second monster, Tarabusaw, an ugly creature in the form
of a man, lived on Mt. Matutun, and far and wide from that place he
devoured the people, laying waste the land. The third, an enormous
bird called Pah, [142] was so large that when on the wing it covered
the sun and brought darkness to the earth. Its egg was as large as a
house. Mt. Bita was its haunt, and there the only people who escaped
its voracity were those who hid in caves in the mountains. The fourth
monster was a dreadful bird also, having seven heads and the power
to see in all directions at the same time. Mt. Gurayn was its home
and like the others it wrought havoc in its region.

So great was the death and destruction caused by these terrible animals
that at length the news spread even to the most distant lands, and
all nations were grieved to hear of the sad fate of Mindanao.

Now far across the sea in the land of the golden sunset was a city
so great that to look at its many people would injure the eyes of
man. When tidings of these great disasters reached this distant city,
the heart of the king Indarapatra [143] was filled with compassion,
and he called his brother, Sulayman, [144] begging him to save the
land of Mindanao from the monsters.

Sulayman listened to the story, and as he heard he was moved with pity.

"I will go," said he, zeal and enthusiasm adding to his strength,
"and the land shall be avenged."

King Indarapatra, proud of his brother's courage, gave him a ring and
a sword as he wished him success and safety. Then he placed a young
sapling by his window [145] and said to Sulayman:

"By this tree I shall know your fate from the time you depart from
here, for if you live, it will live; but if you die, it will die also."

So Sulayman departed for Mindanao, and he neither walked nor used a
boat, but he went through the air and landed on the mountain where
the rattan grew. There he stood on the summit and gazed about on all
sides. He looked on the land and the villages, but he could see no
living thing. And he was very sorrowful and cried out:

"Alas, how pitiful and dreadful is this devastation!"

No sooner had Sulayman uttered these words than the whole mountain
began to move, and then shook. Suddenly out of the ground came the
horrible creature, Kurita. It sprang at the man and sank its claws
into his flesh. But Sulayman, knowing at once that this was the
scourge of the land, drew his sword and cut the Kurita to pieces.

Encouraged by his first success, Sulayman went on to Mt. Matutun
where conditions were even worse. As he stood on the heights viewing
the great devastation  there was a noise in the forest and a movement
in the trees. With a loud yell, forth leaped Tarabusaw. For a moment
they looked at each other, neither showing any fear. Then Tarabusaw
threatened to devour the man, and Sulayman declared that he would kill
the monster. At that the animal broke large branches off the trees
and began striking at Sulayman who, in turn, fought back. For a long
time the battle continued until at last the monster fell exhausted
to the ground and then Sulayman killed him with his sword.

The next place visited by Sulayman was Mt. Bita. Here havoc was present
everywhere, and though he passed by many homes, not a single soul
was left. As he walked along, growing sadder at each moment, a sudden
darkness which startled him fell over the land. As he looked toward
the sky he beheld a great bird descending upon him. Immediately he
struck at it, cutting off its wing with his sword, and the bird fell
dead at his feet; but the wing fell on Sulayman, and he was crushed.

Now at this very time King Indarapatra was sitting at his window,
and looking out he saw the little tree wither and dry up.

"Alas!" he cried, "my brother is dead"; and he wept bitterly.

Then although he was very sad, he was filled with a desire for revenge,
and putting on his sword and belt he started for Mindanao in search
of his brother.

He, too, traveled through the air with great speed until he came to
the mountain where the rattan grew. There he looked about, awed at
the great destruction, and when he saw the bones of Kurita he knew
that his brother had been there and gone. He went on till he came to
Matutun, and when he saw the bones of Tarabusaw he knew that this,
too, was the work of Sulayman.

Still searching for his brother, he arrived at Mt. Bita where the
dead bird lay on the ground, and as he lifted the severed wing he
beheld the bones of Sulayman with his sword by his side. His grief
now so overwhelmed Indarapatra that he wept for some time. Upon
looking up he beheld a small jar of water by his side. This he knew
had been sent from heaven, and he poured the water over the bones,
and Sulayman came to life again. They greeted each other and talked
long together. Sulayman declared that he had not been dead but asleep,
and their hearts were full of joy.

After some time Sulayman returned to his distant home, but Indarapatra
continued his journey to Mt. Gurayn where he killed the dreadful bird
with the seven heads. After these monsters had all been destroyed
and peace and safety had been restored to the land, Indarapatra began
searching everywhere to see if some of the people might not be hidden
in the earth still alive.

One day during his search he caught sight of a beautiful woman at a
distance. When he hastened toward her she disappeared through a hole
in the ground where she was standing. Disappointed and tired, he sat
down on a rock to rest, when, looking about, he saw near him a pot
of uncooked rice with a big fire on the ground in front of it. This
revived him and he proceeded to cook the rice. As he did so, however,
he heard someone laugh near by, and turning he beheld an old woman
watching him. As he greeted her, she drew near and talked with him
while he ate the rice.

Of all the people in the land, the old woman told him, only a very
few were still alive, and they hid in a cave in the ground from whence
they never ventured. As for herself and her old husband, she went on,
they had hidden in a hollow tree, and this they had never dared leave
until after Sulayman killed the voracious bird, Pah.

At Indarapatra's earnest request, the old woman led him to the cave
where he found the headman with his family and some of his people. They
all gathered about the stranger, asking many questions, for this
was the first they had heard about the death of the monsters. When
they found what Indarapatra had done for them, they were filled
with gratitude, and to show their appreciation the headman gave his
daughter to him in marriage, and she proved to be the beautiful girl
whom Indarapatra had seen at the mouth of the cave.

Then the people all came out of their hiding-place and returned to
their homes where they lived in peace and happiness. And the sea
withdrew from the land and gave the lowlands to the people.

The Widow's Son

_Subanun_ (_Mindanao_)

In a little house at the edge of a village lived a widow with her
only son, and they were very happy together. The son was kind to his
mother, and they made their living by growing rice in clearings on
the mountain side and by hunting wild pig in the forest.

One evening when their supply of meat was low, the boy said:

"Mother, I am going to hunt pig in the morning, and I wish you would
prepare rice for me before daylight."

So the widow rose early and cooked the rice, and at dawn the boy
started out with his spear and dog.

Some distance from the village, he entered the thick forest. He walked
on and on, ever on the lookout for game, but none appeared. At last
when he had traveled far and the sun was hot, he sat down on a rock to
rest and took out his brass box [138] to get a piece of betel-nut. He
prepared the nut and leaf for chewing, and as he did so he wondered
why it was that he had been so unsuccessful that day. But even as he
pondered he heard his dog barking sharply, and cramming the betel-nut
into his mouth he leaped up and ran toward the dog.

As he drew near he could see that the game was a fine large pig,
all black save its four legs which were white. He lifted his spear
and took aim, but before he could throw the pig started to run,
and instead of going toward a water course it ran straight up the
mountain. The boy went on in hot pursuit, and when the pig paused he
again took aim, but before he could throw it ran on.

Six times the pig stopped just long enough for the boy to take aim,
and then started on before he could throw. The seventh time, however,
it halted on the top of a large flat rock and the boy succeeded in
killing it.

He tied its legs together with a piece of rattan and was about to
start for home with the pig on his back, when to his surprise a door
in the large stone swung open and a man stepped out.

"Why have you killed my master's pig?" asked the man.

"I did not know that this pig belonged to anyone," replied the widow's
son. "I was hunting, as I often do, and when my dog found the pig I
helped him to catch it"

"Come in and see my master," said the man, and the boy followed him
into the stone where he found himself in a large room. The ceiling and
floor were covered with peculiar cloth that had seven wide stripes
of red alternating with a like number of yellow stripes. When the
master of the place appeared his trousers were of seven colors,
[139] as were also his jacket and the kerchief about his head.

The master ordered betel-nut, and when it was brought they chewed
together. Then he called for wine, and it was brought in a jar so
large that it had to be set on the ground under the house, and even
then the top came so high above the floor that they brought a seat
for the widow's son, and it raised him just high enough to drink
from the reed in the top of the jar. He drank seven cups of wine,
and then they ate rice and fish and talked together.

The master did not blame the boy for killing the pig, and declared that
he wished to make a brother of him. So they became friends, and the
boy remained seven days in the stone. At the end of that time, he said
that he must return to his mother who would be worried about him. In
the early morning he left the strange house and started for home.

At first he walked briskly, but as the morning wore on he went more
slowly, and finally when the sun was high he sat down on a rock to
rest. Suddenly looking up, he saw before him seven men each armed with
a spear, a shield, and a sword. They were dressed in different colors,
and each man had eyes the same color as his clothes. The leader, who
was dressed all in red with red eyes to match, spoke first, asking
the boy where he was going. The boy replied that he was going home
to his mother who would be looking for him, and added:

"Now I ask where you are going, all armed ready for war."

"We are warriors," replied the man in red. "And we go up and down the
world killing whatever we see that has life. Now that we have met you,
we must kill you also."

The boy, startled by this strange speech, was about to answer when he
heard a voice near him say: "Fight, for they will try to kill you,"
and upon looking up he saw his spear, shield, and sword which he had
left at home. Then he knew that the command came from a spirit, so he
took his weapons and began to fight. For three days and nights they
contended, and never before had the seven seen one man so brave. On
the fourth day the leader was wounded and fell dead, and then, one
by one, the other six fell.

When they were all killed, the widow's son was so crazed with fighting
that he thought no longer of returning home, but started out to find
more to slay.

In his wanderings he came to the home of a great giant whose house
was already full of the men he had conquered in battle, and he called
up from outside:

"Is the master of the house at home? If he is, let him come out
and fight."

This threw the giant into a rage, and seizing his shield and his
spear, the shaft of which was the trunk of a tree, he sprang to the
door and leaped to the ground, not waiting to go down the notched
pole which served for steps. He looked around for his antagonist,
and seeing only the widow's son he roared:

"Where is the man that wants to fight? That thing? It is only a fly!"

The boy did not stop to answer, but rushed at the giant with his knife;
and for three days and nights they struggled, till the giant fell,
wounded at the waist.

After that the widow's son stopped only long enough to burn the giant's
house, and then rushed on looking for someone else to slay. Suddenly
he again heard the voice which had bade him fight with the seven men,
and this time it said: "Go home now, for your mother is grieved at
your absence." In a rage he sprang forward with his sword, though he
could see no enemy. Then the spirit which had spoken to him made him
sleep for a short time. When he awoke the rage was spent.

Again the spirit appeared, and it said: "The seven men whom you killed
were sent to kill you by the spirit of the great stone, for he looked
in your hand and saw that you were to marry the orphan girl whom
he himself wished to wed. But you have conquered. Your enemies are
dead. Go home now and prepare a great quantity of wine, for I shall
bring your enemies to life again, and you will all live in peace."

So the widow's son went home, and his mother, who had believed him
dead, was filled with joy at his coming, and all the people in the town
came out to welcome him. When he had told them his story, they hastened
to get wine, and all day they bore jarsful to the widow's house.

That night there was a great feast, and the spirit of the great stone,
his seven warriors, the friendly spirit, and the giant all came. The
widow's son married the orphan girl, while another beautiful woman
became the wife of the spirit of the stone.

The Sun and the Moon

_Mandaya_ (_Mindanao_)

The Sun and the Moon were married, but the Sun was very ugly and
quarrelsome. One day he became angry at the Moon and started to chase
her. She ran very fast until she was some distance ahead of him, when
she grew tired and he almost caught her. Ever since he has been chasing
her, at times almost reaching her, and again falling far behind.

The first child of the Sun and Moon was a large star, and he was like
a man. One time the Sun, becoming angry at the star, cut him up into
small pieces and scattered him over the whole sky just as a woman
scatters rice, and ever since there have been many stars.

Another child of the Sun and Moon was a gigantic crab. [135] He still
lives and is so powerful that every time he opens and closes his eyes
there is a flash of lightning. Most of the time the crab lives in
a large hole in the bottom of the sea, and when he is there we have
high tide; but when he leaves the hole, the waters rush in and there
is low tide. His moving about also causes great waves on the surface
of the sea.

The crab is quarrelsome like his father; and he sometimes becomes so
angry with his mother, the Moon, that he tries to swallow her. [136]
When the people on earth, who are fond of the Moon, see the crab near
her, they run out of doors and shout and beat on gongs until he is
frightened away, and thus the Moon is saved.

The Children of the Limokon

_Mandaya_ (_Mindanao_)

In the very early days before there were any people on the earth,
the limokon (a kind of dove) [134] were very powerful and could talk
like men though they looked like birds. One limokon laid two eggs, one
at the mouth of the Mayo River and one farther up its course. After
some time these eggs hatched, and the one at the mouth of the river
became a man, while the other became a woman.

The man lived alone on the bank of the river for a long time, but
he was very lonely and wished many times for a companion. One day
when he was crossing the river something was swept against his legs
with such force that it nearly caused him to drown. On examining it,
he found that it was a hair, and he determined to go up the river and
find whence it came. He traveled up the stream, looking on both banks,
until finally he found the woman, and he was very happy to think that
at last he could have a companion.

They were married and had many children, who are the Mandaya still
living along the Mayo River.

In the Beginning

_Bilaan_ (_Mindanao_)

In the beginning there were four beings, [131] and they lived on an
island no larger than a hat. On this island there were no trees or
grass or any other living thing besides these four people and one
bird. [132] One day they sent this bird out across the waters to
see what he could find, and when he returned he brought some earth,
a piece of rattan, and some fruit.

Melu, the greatest of the four, took the soil and shaped it and beat
it with a paddle in the same manner in which a woman shapes pots of
clay, and when he finished he had made the earth. Then he planted
the seeds from the fruit, and they grew until there was much rattan
and many trees bearing fruit.

The four beings watched the growth for a long time and were well
pleased with the work, but finally Melu said:

"Of what use is this earth and all the rattan and fruit if there are
no people?"

And the others replied, "Let us make some people out of wax."

So they took some wax and worked long, fashioning it into forms,
but when they brought them to the fire the wax melted, and they saw
that men could not be made in that way.

Next they decided to try to use dirt in making people, and Melu and
one of his companions began working on that. All went well till they
were ready to make the noses. The companion, who was working on that
part, put them on upside down. Melu told him that the people would
drown if he left them that way, but he refused to change them.

When his back was turned, however, Melu seized the noses, one by one,
and turned them as they now are. But he was in such a hurry that he
pressed his finger at the root, and it left a mark in the soft clay
which you can still see on the faces of people.

The Story of the Creation

_Bilaan_ (_Mindanao_)

In the very beginning there lived a being so large that he can not
be compared with any known thing. His name was Melu, [129] and when
he sat on the clouds, which were his home, he occupied all the space
above. His teeth were pure gold, and because he was very cleanly
and continually rubbed himself with his hands, his skin became pure
white. The dead skin which he rubbed off his body [130] was placed
on one side in a pile, and by and by this pile became so large that
he was annoyed and set himself to consider what he could do with it.

Finally Melu decided to make the earth; so he worked very hard in
putting the dead skin into shape, and when it was finished he was so
pleased with it that he determined to make two beings like himself,
though smaller, to live on it.

Taking the remnants of the material left after making the earth he
fashioned two men but just as they were all finished except their
noses, Tau Tana from below the earth appeared and wanted to help him.

Melu did not wish any assistance, and a great argument ensued. Tau
Tana finally won his point and made the noses which he placed on the
people upside down. When all was finished, Melu and Tau Tana whipped
the forms until they moved. Then Melu went to his home above the
clouds, and Tau Tana returned to his place below the earth.

All went well until one day a great rain came, and the people on the
earth nearly drowned from the water which ran off their heads into
their noses. Melu, from his place on the clouds, saw their danger,
and he came quickly to earth and saved their lives by turning their
noses the other side up.

The people were very grateful to him, and promised to do anything
he should ask of them. Before he left for the sky, they told him
that they were very unhappy living on the great earth all alone, so
he told them to save all the hair from their heads and the dry skin
from their bodies and the next time he came he would make them some
companions. And in this way there came to be a great many people on
the earth.